About disputes

A dispute occurs when a cardholder doesn’t recognize a transaction shown in the credit card bill or has not been provided with the product/service. In order to request a transaction cancellation, the consumer contacts the card’s issuer.


Types of protests

Fraud

The cardholder claims not to have recognized the spending, that is, they didn’t take part in the purchase, whether they have the card at hand or not. Examples: transactions without the physical card (via phone, online), lost or stolen card.

Commercial controversy or disagreement

The cardholder took part in the transaction and ended up requesting a new protest process for any disagreement with the establishment. Example: purchase cancellation, goods not received, duplicate purchase, service not provided.


Operational processes

Policies and procedures

We suggest that all issuers have a policy for working on received demands by taking into consideration brands’ rules and best practices in the industry.

• Main considerations related to brands: deadline for dispute and required documentation;
• Main considerations related to practices in the industry: deadline for protest, the minimum amount for dispute, competences from entries to loss;


Reports

Dock uses reports when extracting disputed purchases for analyzing, handling and tracking the dispute status after sending it to the card brand.


Potential actions/status change

All disputed transactions (credit granted for trusting the cardholder) will initially show the status “under analysis”.

Card brand’s stages:

Chargeback: It is the beginning of the dispute process. In the card brand, it is considered as “granted/refunded” when we don’t receive feedback within the 30/45-day deadline.
Resubmission: It is the new submission by the creditor for the process where the dispute was not accepted. Among the main reasons for this new submission, it may be due to issuing a credit voucher or presenting documentation by the establishment party;
Pre-arbitration: : This process is initiated in case the claim in the resubmission is identified as non-relevant;
Arbitration: : It is the final instance in a dispute process where both parties present information/documentation in order to defend the dispute, while the decision is up to the card brand.


Protest resolutions

Values seen as losses for the issuer:

Releasing of operational loss: Minimum value according to the policy;
Releasing of loss: Fraud;
Releasing of loss: Operations.

Spending is re-included in the cardholder’s bill:

Member’s debit: spending belongs to the member;
Member’s debit: unsent mail;
Member’s debit: spending recognized.

Other types of resolutions

• Chargeback (after the card brand’s deadline);
• Card brand’s credit (credit voucher received without processing the bill/pre-arbitrations wins);


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